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Sleep apnea, left untreated for even a few days, can increase blood sugar and fat levels, stress hormones and blood pressure, according to a new study of sleeping subjects. A report of the study’s findings, published in the August issue of The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, adds further support for the consistent use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a machine that increases air pressure in the throat to keep the airway open during sleep.  “This is one of the first studies to show real-time effects of sleep apnea on metabolism during the night,” says Jonathan Jun, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the paper’s senior author. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 20 – 30 percent of adults, according to studies published in the American Journal of Epidemiology and Lancet Respiratory Medicine. It occurs when the upper airway closes off during sleep, temporarily interrupting breathing. While it is known that OSA is associated with risks for diabetes and heart disease, there has been no consensus on whether OSA is a cause of these disorders or just a marker of obesity, which predisposes one to diabetes and heart disease.  Previous metabolic studies in patients with OSA, the Johns Hopkins researchers say, usually collected data while participants were awake, thus obtaining only a snapshot of OSA’s aftermath, not the actual sleep period when OSA occurs. To better understand how OSA affects metabolism, researchers measured free fatty acids in the blood, glucose, insulin and cortisol (a stress hormone) while participants slept in a sleep laboratory at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. Participants’ brain waves, blood oxygen levels, heart rates and breathing, along with eye and leg movements, were also recorded each night of the study. In total, Jun and colleagues drew blood samples from 31 patients with moderate to severe OSA and a history of regular CPAP use for two nights. The researchers drew samples every 20 minutes starting at 9 p.m. and until 6:40 a.m. Every participant spent one night at the lab with CPAP or after CPAP had been stopped for two nights, in random order, separated by one to four weeks. The average age of all participants was 50.8 years old and the average body mass index indicated obesity, a common characteristic of those with sleep apnea. Two-thirds of the study group was male and a quarter had a history of non-insulin dependent diabetes. Some 22.6 percent of participants were African American, 9.7 percent Asian, 64.5 percent Caucasian and 3.2 percent Hispanic. Jun and colleagues found that CPAP withdrawal caused recurrence of OSA associated with sleep disruption, elevated heart rate and reduced blood oxygen. CPAP withdrawal also increased levels of free fatty acids, glucose, cortisol and blood pressure during sleep. The more severe the OSA, the more these parameters increased. In addition, glucose increased the most in patients with diabetes. Increases in fatty acids, glucose and cortisol have all been linked to diabetes. The Johns Hopkins team also found that blood pressure increased and the arteries showed signs of stiffness in the morning without CPAP. Over time, increased blood pressure and vascular stiffness can contribute to cardiovascular disease. Jun emphasized that the study was limited by studying people with severe OSA and obesity, thus limiting the ability to apply the findings to all OSA patients. The researchers also did not compare CPAP use to a sham CPAP control group to exclude a potential placebo effect. But Jun says that the study provides further evidence that sleep apnea isn’t just a manifestation of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease — it can directly aggravate these conditions. They are continuing to recruit patients in order to answer more questions about which patients are most vulnerable to the impacts of OSA.  This study emphasizes the importance of CPAP therapy for OSA to prevent its metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. Sometimes, patients with OSA have a hard time tolerating CPAP. It is important that these patients contact a sleep specialist who can assist them with CPAP use, or who can recommend alternative therapies. Other authors on this paper include Swati Chopra, Aman Rathore, Haris Younas, Luu V. Pham, Aleksandra Beselman, Il-Young Kim, Robert R. Wolfe and Vsevolod Y. Polotsky of The Johns Hopkins University; Chenjuan Gu of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; and Jamie Perin of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Funding for the research was provided by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Foundation Junior Faculty Award (106-JF-14), the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (P30DK072488), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1K08HL109475, R01HL133100, R01HL128970).  
UCLA RESEARCH ALERT   Brief primary care intervention cut risky drug use among Latinos by 40 percent   FINDINGS  New research finds that brief interventions in a primary care clinic can reduce patients’ risky substance use by 4.5 days per month — a 40 percent decline among the Latino patients surveyed — compared with people who did not receive the brief intervention. This corresponds to two fewer weekends of drug use per month, or one less day of use per weekend, or a shorter monthly binge period.   BACKGROUND The findings duplicate those of the Quit Using Drugs Intervention Trial, or Project QUIT — conducted by the same research team in 2011-2012 — which is aimed at reducing risky drug use. The risky use includes casual, frequent or binge use of illicit drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine, or the misuse of prescription medications, without showing physiological or psychological signs of severe substance use. The trial was conducted in a primary care clinic in East Los Angeles. Previous research demonstrated that a brief intervention by a primary care physician can significantly reduce risky drug use among patients. Subsequent research found that misuse of both prescription and illicit drugs is prevalent enough in Tijuana and East Los Angeles that community clinics in those areas should routinely, though discreetly, screen for it.   For this study the researchers took the same principles they used in Project QUIT and applied them in one of the community clinics where they had tested the intervention.   METHOD The trial was conducted from March through October 2013, with a follow-up after three months, and involved 65 people at a federally qualified health center in East Los Angeles. To reduce the stigma of bringing up a sensitive topic like substance use, several strategies were used. All individuals in the waiting room were approached by bicultural and bilingual research assistants, who introduced themselves as part of a UCLA research team. If they agreed to participate in the “living well” screening, they completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire on a “talking touch-screen” tablet computer. Of those people who screened positive for risky drug use, 32 received the intervention and 33 did not; 51 people completed the three-month follow-up.   People in the intervention group received advice from a clinician about how to quit or reduce their risky drug use; watched a video that reinforced the clinician’s advice; were given a health education booklet; and participated in up to two 20- to 30-minute follow-up telephone coaching sessions. The control patients received usual care and cancer screening information, consisting of both a “video doctor” presentation and an information booklet on cancer screening. The control group was given information about cancer screening, rather than about drugs, to provide them some level of attention in an area unlikely to affect their drug use. The primary outcome was self-reported reduction in the number of days of drug use over the past 30 days validated by urine drug testing.   IMPACT The findings, which showed greater success than the original study, support the idea that all patients should be discreetly screened for risky drug use during primary care visits to their doctors. Also, primary care doctors should be able to routinely provide their patients with advice on reducing risky drug use. If replicated in other clinics, this reduction in substance use could potentially affect an estimated 20 million risky drug users in the United States and prevent them from progressing to severe substance use requiring specialty treatment   AUTHORS The study’s authors are Dr. Lillian Gelberg, Ronald Andersen, Melvin Rico, Mani Vahidi, Steve Shoptaw, Barbara Leake and Kyle Singleton of UCLA; Guillermina Natera Rey of National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City; Martin Serota of AltaMed Health Services Corp., Los Angeles; and Sebastian Baumeister of Technical University of Munich in  Germany.   JOURNAL The study will be published in the peer-reviewed journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.     FUNDING The research was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health, and by the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement.   Media Contact: Enrique Rivero 310-267-7120 erivero@mednet.ucla.edu  
An existing drug may one day protect premenopausal women from life-altering infertility that commonly follows cancer treatments, according to a new study. Women who are treated for cancer with radiation or certain chemotherapy drugs are commonly rendered sterile. According to a 2006 study from Weill Cornell Medicine, nearly 40 percent of all female breast cancer survivors experience premature ovarian failure, in which they lose normal function of their ovaries and often become infertile. Women are born with a lifetime reserve of oocytes, or immature eggs, but those oocytes are among the most sensitive cells in the body and may be wiped out by such cancer treatments. The current study, published in the journal Genetics, was led by John Schimenti, Cornell University professor in the Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Molecular Biology and Genetics. The study builds on his 2014 research that identified a so-called checkpoint protein (CHK2) that becomes activated when oocytes are damaged by radiation. CHK2 functions in a pathway that eliminates oocytes with DNA damage, a natural function to protect against giving birth to offspring bearing new mutations. When the researchers irradiated mice lacking the CHK2 gene, the oocytes survived, eventually repaired the DNA damage, and the mice gave birth to healthy pups. The new study explored whether the checkpoint 2 pathway could be chemically inhibited. “It turns out there were pre-existing CHK2 inhibitor drugs that were developed, ironically enough, for cancer treatment, but they turned out not to be very useful for treating cancer,” said Schimenti, the paper’s senior author. Vera Rinaldi, a graduate student in Schimenti’s lab, is the paper’s first author. “By giving mice the inhibitor drug, a small molecule, it essentially mimicked the knockout of the checkpoint gene,” Rinaldi said. By inhibiting the checkpoint pathway, the oocytes were not killed by radiation and remained fertile, enabling birth of normal pups. “The one major concern,” Schimenti said, “is that even though these irradiated oocytes led to the birth of healthy mouse pups, it’s conceivable that they harbor mutations that will become manifested in a generation or two, because we are circumventing an evolutionarily important mechanism of genetic quality control. This needs to be investigated by genome sequencing." When doctors recognize the need for oocyte-damaging cancer treatments, women may have their oocytes or even ovarian tissue removed and frozen, but this practice delays treatment. Also, when women run out of oocytes, women’s bodies naturally undergo menopause, as their hormonal systems shift. “That is a serious dilemma and emotional issue,” Schimenti said, “when you layer a cancer diagnosis on top of the prospect of having permanent life-altering effects as a result of chemotherapy, and must face the urgent decision of delaying treatment to freeze oocytes at the risk of one’s own life.” The study sets a precedent for co-administering this or related drugs and starting cancer therapy simultaneously, though such interventions would first require lengthy human trials. “While humans and mice have different physiologies, and there is much work to be done to determine safe and effective dosages for people, it is clear that we have the proof of principle for this approach,” Schimenti said. The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.  
Thousands of veterans and active military personnel visit Branson, MO every year and they do their best to show gratitude. Branson honors their service with special deals and discounts on all aspects of their trip, standing tributes before the shows, memorials and exhibits, military reunions and renowned national events like Veterans Week in November. Military veterans, active-duty men and women, and military families are held in very high esteem. Here’s a guide to all things they can enjoy in Branson.  Attractions  Whether you’re looking to snap hilarious keepsake photographs at the Hollywood Wax Museum, be wowed at Ripley’s Believe It or Not, discover artifacts at the Titanic Museum or experience a one-of-a-kind land and water tour with Ride the Ducks, many of Branson’s top attractions offer $2-$3 discounts on tickets for active and retired military and their families. One of the most popular deals is offered at the must-see Silver Dollar City and White Water amusement parks where you can receive a two-day ticket for the price of a one-day ticket, or $5 off a one-day ticket. Dependent military children age 4-11 receive complimentary two-day tickets when they are accompanied by a parent purchasing a two-day military ticket.   Dining  Enjoy discounts of 10-15% at a number of Branson’s restaurants including Famous Dave’s BBQ, Golden Coral, Chili’s, Olive Garden and Shoney’s. On Veterans Day, many locations also offer free meals to honor our men and women who have served.   Hotels & Lodging  A variety of hotels honor veterans and military personnel with 10-20% off (depending on the season). Enjoy a discounted stay at the luxurious Chateau on the Lake or the family-friendly Clarion Hotel and Grand Country Resort. The new, state-of-the-art Hilton Branson Convention Center features a military and veteran discount, as well as a prime location. It’s walking distance to Branson Landing and downtown. For a unique lodging experience, spend a night in the trees at Branson Treehouse Adventures. Other popular favorites include La Quinta Inn Branson Strip, Marriott’s Willow Ridge Lodge, Yellow Rose Inn & Suites and the Barrington Hotel & Suites. Try renting a distinctive cabin with Amazing Branson Rentals. Many of the popular name hotels that offer military discounts nationally have locations in Branson including Best Western, Comfort Inn, Days Inn, Quality Inn and Wyndham.  Shows  Every theater in Branson is a sponsor of the Veterans Task Force. Many of the shows not only kick off with a touching salute to veterans but most offer discounts of 10-20%. The Acrobats of China also feature a special Veteran VIP ticket which is 30% off their usual VIP ticket price. Some other shows with popular discounts include the Baldknobbers Jamboree, Dixie Stampede, SIX and the Texas Tenors.  Shopping  Veterans and active military personnel will enjoy a discount at many of the top name factory stores at the Tanger Outlet including Ann Taylor, Colombia, Eddie Bauer, Dressbarn, Gap, Nike, Old Navy, Ralph Lauren and Under Armour. The outlet mall also offers active Military personnel and their families a free coupon book. Or head over to Bass Pro Shops between the 15th and 22nd of each month when you can receive 10% off select items.  Transportation  All top name car rental facilities, in and around Branson, offer great discounts for veterans and military personnel. At Avis, you can receive a discount of up to 25%, Alamo and National offer up to 20%, and Enterprise, founded by a WWII veteran, features an entire Veterans Advantage Discount program.   Military Reunions in Branson  As the year-round home for America’s veterans, Branson is a popular destination for military reunions. Lodging and meeting venues around town specialize in military reunions and offer planners assistance with arranging the perfect event.  The Branson/Lakes Area Convention & Visitors Bureau  Contact the Branson Chamber for help with planning your next military reunion. Rather than contact dozens of hotels, their complimentary service will help connect you with a venue that is a good fit for meeting your reunion needs.   Dixie Stampede  The Missing Man Table & Honors Ceremony recognizes all branches of service, acknowledges the missing and their absence from the night’s celebration. Dixie Stampede will dedicate the Military Memorial Ceremony free of charge for reunion groups of 15 or more with paid advance reservations to their popular dinner attraction. Military and Veterans Exhibits  Challenge Coin Tables at Shindigs Restaurant   Shindigs would like to turn as many tables in the restaurant as possible into “Challenge Coin” tables. If your reunion is in Branson, visit their tables, share your story, and if you want to be represented, leave them a coin.  Missouri Vietnam Veterans Memorial   Located at the entrance of College of the Ozarks, the Missouri Vietnam Veterans Memorial bears the name of more than 1,400 Missourians who served and died in the Vietnam War.  Veterans Memorial Museum  Located on Highway 76, this museum is hard to miss—just look for the P-51 Mustang fighter. The Veterans Memorial Museum is a moving tribute to those who served in the U.S. Armed Forces across all branches of service. Exhibits include sculptures, murals and thousands of pieces of military memorabilia. There are also displays throughout the museum with names of the soldiers killed in action since World War II.  Veterans Patch Wall  At Grand Country Resort, discover an exhibit with hundreds of patches from various military branches, units and divisions.  Veterans Reunion Registry  The Veterans Reunion Registry is a free service in Branson giving veterans the opportunity to locate others that served in their unit.  Veterans Homecoming Week   This seven-day event is held every year, November 5-11, as both a tribute and celebration of veterans. Festivities include America’s biggest Veterans Day tribute, a Veteran’s Day Parade (now over 80 years), themed shows, memorial ceremonies and more.   
Newswise — Opioids often are the go-to pain killer for everything from back aches and injuries to post-surgical pain, as evidenced by the more than 300 million prescriptions written each year. While they can be effective for moderate to severe short-term pain, opioids are not without risk. Because they have significant side effects, including an increased risk of addiction and overdose, the American Society of Anesthesiologists suggests those who take opioids ask some tough questions – including if it is time to consider other options. Kathleen Callahan understands the dilemma. She suffers from a chronic condition that causes painful cysts that required multiple surgeries resulting in post-surgical and chronic pain for which she took opioids for years. Despite being on a high dose of opioids, Kathleen still had chronic pain. So she turned to Anita Gupta, D.O., Pharm.D., a physician anesthesiologist who specializes in pain medicine, to find an alternative.  “Opioids are a valuable tool for recovery and acute pain but when I was on them long-term, I couldn’t function and I wasn’t enjoying life. I couldn’t be involved in my children’s lives and my work was suffering,” said Kathleen, a mother of two who works in finance. “Dr. Gupta said she could help me manage my pain so my life was livable. With her help, I weaned off all the medication except for the occasional ibuprofen for bad days. Now I can exercise again. I can go to the gym. I can go out with my friends and enjoy myself. I go to my kids’ baseball games, school plays and other activities.”  “Kathleen and I had some difficult discussions. I didn’t think the medications were right for her anymore and I was truthful with her,” said Dr. Gupta. “She asked some hard questions and having these conversations really developed trust between us so I could help her move forward and cope with her pain. Since she’s been opioid-free she’s vibrant, energetic and successful in her career. She has her life back.” If you are taking opioids or your physician has prescribed them, the American Society of Anesthesiologists suggests asking yourself (and your physician) some tough questions: Why was I prescribed opioids? Some doctors assume patients will demand what many consider the strongest and most effective pain relief and therefore prescribe opioids automatically. But there are many medication and non-medication options, so ask your doctor if other pain relief methods might be effective. If you and your doctor decide opioids are the best option, ask how long you should take them. In most cases, opioids are most beneficial for short-term moderate to severe pain – such as a few days after surgery or an injury. If you continue to have pain, ask your physician about alternatives. Are opioids affecting my quality of life? Opioids have many side effects, ranging from severe constipation, mental fogginess and nausea to depression. Kathleen said she was “exhausted, cranky, depressed, constipated and gaining weight.” The opioids affected her relationship with her kids because she wasn’t involved in their lives. That’s when she realized opioids were worse than the pain itself, motivating her to seek other options. What are my concerns about taking opioids – or stopping them? With the media attention surrounding opioid risks, many people feel conflicted about taking them. They may: worry they are being judged by others; be concerned about becoming addicted and/or potentially overdosing; and fear they won’t be able to control their pain if they stop taking opioids. It’s important to talk to your physician if you have any of these concerns or others. For example, ask about obtaining naloxone, a drug that can reverse an overdose if injected quickly enough. If you take opioids when you don’t have pain or use more than directed, you may develop a dependence or addiction.     Is it time to consider other methods of pain management? Opioids are most effective in the short term. While some people with chronic pain find relief with opioids, they should be part of a “multimodal” plan, which features other methods of pain management. Discuss alternative therapies with your doctor, including: Injections or nerve blocks – Injection with local anesthetics can short circuit muscle and nerve pain. Electrical stimulation and spinal cord stimulation – Electrical impulses sent by devices that are implanted or worn on the body can block pain. Physical therapy – Strengthening muscles can improve function and decrease pain. Physical therapy may include other pain-easing methods such as whirlpools, ultrasound and massage. Acupuncture – Very thin needles placed in various parts of the body can interrupt pain signals. Biofeedback, meditation, deep breathing and relaxation – These methods can ease pain by controlling involuntary functions such as heart rate, as well as learning to ease muscle tension. Surgical procedures – In some cases, surgery can correct painful abnormalities or sever the nerves causing the pain.  What type of physician can best help manage my pain? If you have severe or ongoing pain, be sure to see a physician who specializes in pain management, such as a physician anesthesiologist. These specialists have received four years of medical school and additional training in a specialty, such as anesthesiology or physical medicine and rehabilitation, followed by an additional year of training to become an expert in treating pain. They have the expertise to best help you manage your pain. “These are the difficult questions that no one wants to discuss, but physicians and patients need to talk about them so the patient can get better,” said Dr. Gupta. “If they’re prescribed opioids, patients need  to ask how long they’re going to be on them as well as additional options for treating pain. With all the tools we have there is a lot more patients can do for their pain with their physicians’ help.” “My entire outlook on pain management has changed,” says Kathleen. “If I didn’t have a physician anesthesiologist on my medical team I believe right now I would be very overweight, inactive, not part of my children’s lives and clinically depressed. When you have a physician like Dr. Gupta who you trust and who shows you there’s another way, it’s just amazing. It’s night and day. I’m even starting to run in marathons.” For more information download ASA’s Asking the Hard Questions About Opioids. To learn more about the critical role physician anesthesiologists play before, during and after surgery, visit www.asahq.org/WhenSecondsCount. THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANESTHESIOLOGISTSFounded in 1905, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) is an educational, research and scientific society with more than 52,000 members organized to raise and maintain the standards of the medical practice of anesthesiology. ASA is committed to ensuring physician anesthesiologists evaluate and supervise the medical care of patients before, during and after surgery to provide the highest quality and safest care every patient deserves. For more information on the field of anesthesiology, visit the American Society of Anesthesiologists online at asahq.org To learn more about the role physician anesthesiologists play in ensuring patient safety, visit asahq.org/WhenSecondsCount.  Like ASA on Facebook, follow @ASALifeline on Twitter.
Newswise — ST. LOUIS — Saint Louis University researchers report in Molecular Metabolism new findings that the nuclear receptor REV-ERB appears to play a key role in muscle regeneration, suggesting the receptor may be a good target for new drugs to treat a variety of muscle disorders and injuries. Colin Flaveny, Ph.D. assistant professor of pharmacology and physiology and Thomas Burris, Ph.D., chair of pharmacology and physiology at Saint Louis University, focus their work on identifying natural hormones that regulate nuclear receptors and then developing synthetic compounds to target these receptors in order to develop drugs to treat diseases. Earlier this year, Burris published findings showing that a nuclear receptor called REV-ERB is involved in lowering LDL cholesterol. He previously studied REV-ERB’s role in regulating mammals’ internal clocks. Now teaming up, Flaveny and Burris are uncovering REV-ERB’s role in muscle regeneration. “REV-ERB is an interesting nuclear receptor that helps coordinate our metabolism with our daily routine,” Flaveny said. “We’re studying the protein to see if turning its activity up or down can influence the way muscle regenerates after injury or illness.” Skeletal muscle comprises 40 to 50 percent of our total body mass and is essential for postural support, locomotion and breathing. With a high capacity for regeneration, skeletal muscle normally maintains muscle mass and function in response to minor injuries and normal wear and tear without much trouble. However, in cases of traumatic injury or illnesses like congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe burns, cancer and HIV infection, the body’s natural muscle regeneration may not be able to keep up and the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength is common. When injuries are severe – with more than 20 percent loss of muscle mass – normal muscle regeneration often cannot keep pace with the regenerative demands. In this scenario, the loss of skeletal muscle mass can trigger widespread fibrosis and loss of muscle function. Eventually, muscle regeneration may become unable to keep up, even with assistance through dietary interventions, anabolic steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs). The use of anabolic steroids and NSAIDs are accompanied by severe side effects that may further reduce quality of life. Often, pharmacological interventions fail to stem long-term decline in quality of life or enhance survival for those with degenerative muscle tissue diseases. “Identifying new means of accelerating muscle regeneration has proved a daunting challenge,” Burris said. “Therefore understanding the underlying mechanisms that regulate muscle cell regeneration and coordinate regenerative repair could provide future therapeutic options for stymieing the loss of muscle function in the traumatically injured.” A simplified version of muscle cells’ life-cycle looks like this: muscle stem cells produce myoblasts that will either reproduce (proliferate) or form muscle tissue (differentiate). Successful regeneration of skeletal muscle after traumatic injury depends on the replenishment of muscle fibers through elevated myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Scientists were fascinated to see that REV-ERB appears to play different roles for different stages of muscle tissue development. A decline in expression of REV-ERB precedes myoblast differentiation. Conversely, an increase in REV-ERB expression is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial and metabolic function in fully differentiated skeletal muscle. The research team identified a mechanism through which REV-ERB may regulate gene expression pre and post muscle differentiation. They show that REV-ERB is a regulator of muscle differentiation that can be targeted to stimulate muscle regeneration and may be useful in treating numerous muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy, sarcopenia and cachexia, in addition to acute injury. “We demonstrate that REV-ERB can stimulate muscle regeneration upon acute muscle injury in an animal model,” Burris said. “Our findings reveal that REV-ERB may be a potent therapeutic target for the treatment of a myriad of muscular disorders.” Other researchers on the study include Ryan D. Welch, Chun Guo, Monideepa Sengupta, Katherine J. Carpenter, Natalie A. Stephens, Stacy A. Arnett, Marvin J. Meyers, Lauren M. Sparks, Steven R. Smith and Jinsong Zhang. This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (MH093429 and R01HL093195). Established in 1836, Saint Louis University School of Medicine has the distinction of awarding the first medical degree west of the Mississippi River. The school educates physicians and biomedical scientists, conducts medical research, and provides health care on a local, national and international level. Research at the school seeks new cures and treatments in five key areas: cancer, liver disease, heart/lung disease, aging and brain disease, and infectious diseases.   SEE ORIGINAL STUDY
Newswise — Most people are aware of post-traumatic stress disorder, an anxiety disorder that can develop after a shocking, scary or dangerous event. It can cause irritability, emotional numbing, sleeplessness and other problems. What’s less well-known is how a parent’s PTSD can affect their children. That’s an area that Tom Babayan, a licensed marriage and family therapist at UCLA, wants to draw attention to during PTSD Awareness Month in June. Based at the Nathanson Family Resilience Center at UCLA’s Semel Institute, Babayan helps people with PTSD learn to communicate about their symptoms to their children. Parents don’t need to talk about their trauma to share their struggles, Babayan says. Instead, they should explain the PTSD-related behavior their children might be witnessing. For example: “Mom is having some bad memories once in a while; that’s why she seems irritated. It’s something we’re working on.” “Keep in mind the age, and perspective, of your child,” Babayan says. “A lot of times kids are asking less about what actually happened, and more about the present moment; they’re concerned about who’s going to take them to baseball practice. Parents can imagine what’s important to child – and if they aren’t sure, explore it.”
Newswise — MINNEAPOLIS – For people with headache, seeing the neurologist by video for treatment may be as effective as an in-person visit, according to a study published in the June 14, 2017, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. “Headache is the most common neurologic disorder, yet is often not diagnosed or people don’t receive adequate treatment,” said study author Kai I. Müller, MD, of the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø. “New technology is available to diagnose and treat people through telemedicine, but few studies have looked at whether it is effective for people with headache.” The study involved 402 people with non-acute headaches, or headaches that came on gradually, who had been referred from a primary care doctor to a neurologist. Half of the participants then had a traditional office visit with a neurologist at a hospital in northern Norway. The other half came to the hospital but saw the neurologist through video conference. Participants completed questionnaires about the impact their headaches had on their daily life and about the level of pain at the beginning of the study and again after three months and one year.  The researchers found no differences between the people treated using telemedicine and those who had traditional office visits. The study was what is called a non-inferiority study, which is designed to show that the new type of treatment is not clinically worse than the current type of treatment. To assess the safety of using telemedicine, the researchers looked to see whether participants had secondary headache a year after the visit. Secondary headache is a headache that is a symptom of a disease or another underlying condition. “We wanted to make sure that the neurologists were not missing any underlying diseases that were causing the headaches when they were treating people via telemedicine, but there was only one person in each group who had a secondary headache, so there was no difference in the diagnosis and treatment,” Müller said. The researchers estimated that in every 20,200 consultations by telemedicine, one diagnosis of secondary headache would be missed. “Northern Norway covers a huge area and it is broken up by mountains, valleys and fjords into many sparsely populated places, so traveling to see a doctor can be cumbersome and expensive for many people,” Müller said. “But telemedicine may be valuable for people all over the world who are suffering with headaches and want to see a specialist without any extra hassle or inconvenience.” Müller noted that having all of the participants come to the hospital made the study conditions less realistic. He said that other weaknesses of the study were the lack of a placebo group and blinding, but that those would be difficult to implement. The study was supported by the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority. To learn more about headache, visit www.aan.com/patients. The American Academy of Neurology is the world’s largest association of neurologists and neuroscience professionals, with 32,000 members. The AAN is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, concussion, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com or find us on Facebook, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn and YouTube.
Newswise — The developmental period from adolescence to adulthood is accompanied by a greater vulnerability to addictions – including alcohol use disorders – than is seen in other periods of life. This increased risk may be due to genetic predisposition, poor impulse control, or heightened sensitivity of the still-developing brain to drug-related toxicity. This report describes a study in mice of the neurobehavioral impact of chronic, intermittent alcohol-vapor exposure during adolescence, in an effort to model periodic heavy drinking and compare it with similar drinking behavior during adulthood. Researchers conducted two parallel tests in adult male mice following their exposure to alcohol vapors during adolescence (4-6 weeks old) or adulthood (8-10 weeks old).  First, they tested the adult mice for changes in the density and structure of dendritic spines (nerve endings) in the infralimbic cortex (IL), prelimbic cortex (PL) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regions of the brain. Second, they tested the adult mice for alcohol drinking, sensitivity to alcohol intoxication, blood-alcohol clearance, and measures of response to food reward. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapors during adolescence produced significant, persistent, and strong regional-specific alterations in neuronal dendritic spine density in IL and BLA neurons, accompanied by a limited set of behavioral alterations. Comparable effects were not seen in the mice exposed to alcohol only during adulthood.  Together, these data demonstrate that specific key brain circuits are vulnerable to alcohol’s effects during adolescence, with lasting and potentially detrimental consequences for behavior.   SEE ORIGINAL STUDY
Newswise — A plant found throughout Southeast Asia traditionally used to treat arthritis and rheumatism contains a potent anti-HIV compound more powerful than the drug AZT, according to a new paper published in the Journal of Natural Compounds. The chemical, patentiflorin A, is derived from the willow-leaved Justicia, and was identified in a screening of more than 4,500 plant extracts for their effect against the HIV virus. The discovery is one of the results of a multi-year research partnership made up of scientists from the University of Illinois at Chicago, Hong Kong Baptist University, and the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology working together as an International Cooperative Biodiversity Group. These groups, funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, look for natural products that may have applications in health and medicine, and also work to support sustainable use of these resources in low-income countries. Lijun Rong, professor of microbiology and immunology in the UIC College of Medicine; Harry Fong, associate director of the World Health Organization Program for Traditional Medicine; and Doel Soejarto, professor emeritus of medicinal chemistry and pharmacognosy in the UIC College of Pharmacy, led the UIC team. Rong is an expert at identifying antiviral agents, Soejarto is a renowned plant scientist, and Fong is a well-known pharmacologist. The willow-leaved Justicia extract had been taken from the leaves, stems and roots of plants that had been collected in Cuc Phuong National Park in Hanoi, Vietnam more than 10 years ago by Soejarto. The UIC/Hong Kong/Vietnam ICBG analyzed the extract along with thousands of others as part of their efforts to identify new drugs against HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and cancer. Rong and his colleagues zeroed in on patentiflorin A because of its ability to inhibit an enzyme needed for HIV to incorporate its genetic code into a cell’s DNA. AZT, the first anti-HIV drug developed and marketed in 1987, and which remains the cornerstone of HIV drug cocktails today, inhibits this enzyme, called reverse transcriptase. In studies of human cells infected with the HIV virus, patentiflorin A had a much more significant inhibition effect on the enzyme. “Patentiflorin A was able to inhibit the action of reverse transcriptase much more effectively than AZT, and was able to do this both in the earliest stages of HIV infection when the virus enters macrophage cells, and alter infection when it is present in T cells of the immune system,” said Rong. It also was effective against known drug-resistant strains of the HIV virus, making it a very promising candidate for further development into a new HIV drug. “Patentiflorin A represents a novel anti-HIV agent that can be added to the current anti-HIV drug cocktail regimens to increase suppression of the virus and prevention of AIDS,” Rong said. The researchers were also able to synthesize patentiflorin A. “If we can make the drug in the lab, we don’t need to establish farms to grow and harvest the plant, which requires significant financial investment, not to mention it has an environmental impact,” Rong said. Along with Soejarto and Fong, additional co-authors on the paper include Emily Rumschlag-Booms, UIC College of Medicine; Hong-Jie Zhang, Yi-Fu Guan, Dong-Ying Wang, Kang-Lun Liu, and Wan-Fei Li, Hong Kong Baptist University; and Van Nguyen and Nguyen Cuong, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. This project was supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKBU 262912); the Health and Medical Research Fund (12132161) of the Food and Health Bureau, Hong Kong SAR; the Hong Kong Baptist University Interdisciplinary Research Matching Scheme (RC-IRMS/15-16/02), Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/11-12/134 and FRG2/14-15/047); NIH Grants 3U01TW001015-10S1 and 2U01TW001015-11A1, administered by the Fogarty International Center, as part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program; and a grant from the Mr. Kwok Yat Wai and Madam Kwok Chung Bo Fun Graduate School Development Fund.   SEE ORIGINAL STUDY