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Newswise — Breakthrough research demonstrating that children with autism as young as 18 months can vastly improve their language, cognition and social skills with an early intervention developed by UC Davis Professor Sally Rogers has been replicated in a major new study. Rogers, a professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the MIND Institute, began work on a novel developmental approach to autism in Denver in 1981, and in partnership with her colleague and co-author Geraldine Dawson developed an approach to improving long-term outcomes for very young children. The Early Start Denver Model has since become a method used throughout the U.S. and around the world. But until now ESDM had not been tested in the most rigorous fashion − a multi-site randomized trial, comparing the approach with community-based autism interventions. The study, which appears today in Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, began in 2007 at three university sites around the country. The new research replicates an ESDM study published in 2010. Rogers emphasized that replication studies are rare and costly but critical to validate novel scientific findings. The new study found that children receiving intensive ESDM in their homes for an average of 15 hours per week made significantly greater language gains than did children in the community interventions, and this was true for both children with more severe delays and those with less. In addition to validating the efficacy of ESDM for language development, the study also found that children receiving services in the community settings made large gains in several areas. “The idea that little children with autism who are getting good treatment can make this much IQ and language gain means we should expect this from quality early-intervention experiences,” Rogers said. “These findings should raise families’ hopes a whole lot.” Pioneering autism treatment was a new idea What distinguishes ESDM from the more traditional, behavioral interventions used with children with autism is that it combines developmental and behavioral approaches and is carried out within in everyday routines. ESDM is built on moment-to-moment interactions that young children typically have with other people, especially their parents, and uses children’s interests and favorite activities to assure that social interaction is interesting and fun. “Unlike other approaches popular at the time that the Denver Model began, we used a typical preschool physical environment and focused on the learning opportunities that existed in social interactions between children and adults to accelerate children’s development,” Rogers said. “This was a new idea at the time.” In 2012, TIME magazine named ESDM one of the top 10 medical breakthroughs because their work demonstrated that brain function among young children with autism can normalize with effective early intervention in profound, enduring ways. For the current study 118 children with autism, ages 14 months to two years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to either ESDM or community interventions for 27 months. Children assigned to ESDM intervention received three months of weekly parent coaching followed by 24 months of one-on-one treatment about 15 hours per week in homes or daycare settings from supervised therapy assistants. Parents received coaching four hours monthly from a certified ESDM therapist. In the community setting, hours of treatment varied by site. What researchers found was that at two of the three sites, children receiving ESDM had significantly more language improvement than the children in the community interventions, and there was no significant difference in language gain at the third site between the two modalities. When results from all three sites were pooled, there was a significant advantage for the children in the ESDM group overall. “Language is the bridge to learning,” Rogers said. “Language is the door that opens up social communication and education and interactions with people in your community. It’s how you share with people. It’s a main vehicle for social interaction once you pass infancy.” Autism treatment in the community greatly improved over time  The study also found that in terms of cognition and social skills, both the ESDM and community treatment groups made significant gains. Fortunately, Rogers said, laws requiring insurance coverage for early autism intervention and new knowledge about effective treatment have greatly improved community options for families seeking help for young children diagnosed with autism. Rogers said families with a child diagnosed with autism should take some comfort knowing that the early treatments now widely available do make a difference. “It says the autism scores at the time of diagnosis are just a starting point,” she said. “It says that the developmental paths and learning capacity of young children with autism are more plastic than we knew, and there are many ways to get learning opportunities to them.” In addition to Rogers, UC Davis authors on the study were Marie Rocha, Laurie Vismara and Meagan Talbott. Other co-authors on the study included: Annette Estes and Jessica Greenson of the University of Washington; Catherine Lord and Jamie Winter of Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University; Costanza Colombi of University of Michigan; Geraldine Dawson of Duke University, and Gerhard Hellemann of UCLA. This study was supported by individual Autism Speaks grants to Annette Estes and to Sally Rogers and by NIMH/NICHD award number R01 081757 as part of the Autism Centers of Excellence (ACE) Treatment Network, clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT 00698997.
Newswise — ROCHESTER, Minn. — Kidney stones are a common and painful condition, with many sufferers experiencing recurrent episodes. Most people who pass an initial stone want to know their chances of future episodes, but this has not always been easy to predict. Now Mayo Clinic researchers are tracking the familiar characteristics of kidney stone formers in an online prediction tool that could help sufferers anticipate if they'll experience future episodes. The study was published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Using data obtained from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a team of researchers explored a sampling of chronic kidney stone formers from Olmsted County between 1984 and 2017. Common features of patients who had recurrent stone events included younger age, male sex, a higher body mass index, history of pregnancy, and a family history of stones. Researchers also noted that stone recurrence tended to increase after each subsequent event, and the size and location of stones also associated with the risk of future episodes. By using these features to develop a Recurrence of Kidney Stone online prediction tool, researchers were able to improve upon known criteria for future stone formation. By entering information such as gender, race and an individual's kidney stone history, the tool can generate an estimate of recurrence. “Each of the risk factors we identified are entered into the model, which then calculates an estimate of the risk of h0aving another kidney stone in the next five or 10 years,” explains John Lieske, M.D., one of the study researchers. Updating the Recurrence of Kidney Stone model with data collected from the study has improved the tool's ability to predict subsequent events. Since the risk of stone recurrence varies depending on individual factors, this information can be useful for patients or caregivers when deciding how aggressively they want to adopt measures to reduce risk for stone recurrence. The tool, which is available online or as an app, also can be used in research studies to identify those patients most likely to have more kidney stone attacks. Data used in the Recurrence of Kidney Stone model were based on results from Olmsted County, Minnesota. These data will need to be validated in other parts of the country to establish whether the findings are translatable to other settings. Having a baseline knowledge of risk factors for stone recurrence and the potential for future episodes can be an incentive for individuals to modify lifestyle behaviors. By knowing the likelihood of future kidney stone episodes, Dr. Lieske notes that this could help encourage a patient's “enthusiasm for adopting dietary measures and/or starting drug regimens to prevent future attacks.” ###
Newswise — Although growing evidence supports the safety and effectiveness of an assortment of clinical interventions for critically ill patients known as the ABCDEF bundle, critical care providers often struggle with how to incorporate the various elements into clinical practice.    The bundle integrates pain, sedation and delirium management with ventilator weaning, early mobility efforts and family engagement into a single collection of evidence-based best practices. According to the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), components of the ABCDEF bundle individually and collectively can help reduce delirium, improve pain management and reduce long-term consequences for adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. SCCM received a grant from the Gordon and Betty More Foundation to support the ICU Liberation ABCDEF Bundle Improvement Collaborative, a 20-month, nationwide quality improvement initiative designed to promote widespread dissemination and implementation of the bundle. From 2015 to 2016, 68 adult and nine pediatric hospitals from 29 states and Puerto Rico participated in the Collaborative, representing academic, community and federal hospitals from both rural and urban areas. An interprofessional team with expertise in ABCDEF bundle implementation and quality improvement served as faculty for the Collaborative, helping critical care providers at individual sites through the adoption of the bundle in their ICUs. Through in-person meetings and email discussions, the Collaborative identified the most common and challenging barriers to bundle implementation experienced by participating sites. Two articles in the February issue of Critical Care Nurse (CCN) provide practical advice from these leading experts on effective strategies for overcoming the barriers.   In “Implementing the ABCDEF Bundle: Top 8 Questions Asked During the ICU Liberation ABCDEF Bundle Improvement Collaborative,” the team describes the most frequently asked questions and provides practical advice for other institutions implementing the bundle. The questions cover each element of the ABCDEF bundle, as well as teamwork and process improvement. A second article, “Common Challenges to Effective ABCDEF Bundle Implementation: The ICU Liberation Campaign Experience,” discusses some of the most challenging implementation issues that Collaborative teams experienced and recommends specific strategies to overcome the barriers.  “Each member of the ICU team, including patients and their families, offers unique contributions that are essential to implementing the ABCDEF bundle and delivering patient-centered care in the ICU,” said Joanna Stollings, PharmD, a Collaborative faculty member and co-author of the articles.  She is a clinical pharmacist in the department of pharmaceutical services, Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), Nashville, Tennessee. “Critical care staff can use the strategies provided by the Collaborative to facilitate their efforts to adopt the bundle.”  SCCM offers an online resource library as part of its ICU Liberation initiative to encourage widespread use of the ABCDEF bundle. Additional clinical resources related to the ABCDEF bundle are available from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), which publishes CCN. Clinicians should also refer to the recently published 2018 SCCM Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Patients in the ICU (PADIS), as they boost ABCDEF bundle implementation efforts. As part of its AACN Critical Care Webinar Series, AACN hosts a webinar Feb. 14 to present the PADIS guidelines’ recommendations on the management of patients with pain, agitation and delirium, and the impact on clinical practice. Brenda Pun, DNP, RN, an advanced practice nurse at VUMC and one of the Collaborative’s faculty members, will lead the webinar. As AACN’s bimonthly clinical practice journal for high-acuity and critical care nurses, CCN is a trusted source of information related to the bedside care of critically and acutely ill patients. Access the article abstract and full-text PDF by visiting the CCN website at http://ccn.aacnjournals.org.   About Critical Care Nurse: Critical Care Nurse (CCN), a bimonthly clinical practice journal published by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, provides current, relevant and useful information about the bedside care of critically and acutely ill patients. The award-winning journal also offers columns on traditional and emerging issues across the spectrum of critical care, keeping critical care nurses informed on topics that affect their practice in high-acuity, progressive and critical care settings. CCN enjoys a circulation of more than 120,000 and can be accessed at http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/. About the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses: Founded in 1969 with 400 members, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) is now the world’s largest specialty nursing organization. In 2019, AACN celebrates 50 years of acute and critical care nursing excellence, serving more than 120,000 members and over 200 chapters in the United States. The organization remains committed to its vision of creating a healthcare system driven by the needs of patients and their families in which acute and critical care nurses make their optimal contribution. During its 50th anniversary year, AACN continues to salute and celebrate all that nurses have accomplished over the last half century, while honoring their past, present and future impact on the evolution of high-acuity and critical care nursing. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 101 Columbia, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656-4109; 949-362-2000; www.aacn.org; facebook.com/aacnface; twitter.com/aacnme
Newswise — Regular use of aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may help some patients with head and neck cancer survive the disease, according to a study led by Professor Jennifer Grandis at the University of California, San Francisco. The study, which will be published January 25 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, indicates that NSAIDs are effective in patients with mutations in a gene called PIK3CA, and the researchers suggest this is because NSAIDs lower the levels of an inflammatory molecule called prostaglandin E2. The researchers note, however, that they are not yet able to make any specific recommendations about the type, timing, or dosage of NSAIDs such patients should take, and that their results need to be corroborated by a prospective clinical trial. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accounts for about 4% of all cancers in the US and continues to have high rates of patient mortality. Risk factors for HNSCC include smoking, alcohol use, and human papillomavirus infection, but several studies have shown that regular use of aspirin can reduce the risk of developing the disease. However, whether aspirin or other NSAIDs can promote the survival of patients who have already developed HNSCC is unclear; studies investigating this question have so far produced conflicting results. One possibility is that NSAIDs are only effective against some types of HNSCC. Around 35% of HNSCC tumors carry mutations that activate the PIK3CA gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of a key signaling enzyme called PI3Ka. The team of researchers led by Dr. Grandis investigated whether regular NSAID use specifically improved the survival of HNSCC patients with alterations in the PIK3CA gene. The team, which also included researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Arizona, analyzed a group of 266 HNSCC patients who had had their tumors surgically removed and, in most cases, were then treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Patients without any alterations in their PIK3CA gene were no better off if they also took NSAIDs on a regular basis (defined as taking two or more doses per week for at least six months). By contrast, regular NSAID usage dramatically enhanced the survival of patients whose PIK3CA gene was mutated and/or amplified. Among these patients, NSAIDs increased the overall five-year survival rate from 45% to 78%. NSAIDs also reduced the growth of tumors in mice injected with cancer cells harboring a mutant PIK3CAgene. By analyzing these mice, Grandis and colleagues found that NSAIDs likely inhibit tumor growth by reducing the production of prostaglandin E2. This proinflammatory molecule has been implicated in a variety of cancers and can be induced by the PI3Ka signaling pathway. NSAIDs may therefore also be effective against a variety of cancers that contain activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene. Indeed, previous studies have shown that regular aspirin usage can aid the survival of colorectal cancer patients carrying mutated PIK3CA. “The present study is the first to demonstrate that regular NSAID usage confers a significant clinical advantage in patients with PIK3CA-altered HNSCC,” Grandis says. “Inconsistencies in the type, timing, and dosages of NSAIDs taken by patients in this study limit our ability to make specific therapeutic recommendations. But the magnitude of the apparent advantage, especially given the marked morbidity and mortality of this disease, warrants further study in a prospective, randomized clinical trial.” Hedberg et al., 2019. J. Exp. Med. http://jem.rupress.org/cgi/doi/10.1084/jem.20181936?PR
Newswise — Newborn babies are born with the innate skills needed to pick out words from language, a new study published in Developmental Science reveals. Before infants can learn words, they must identify those words in continuous speech. Yet, the speech signal lacks obvious boundary markers, which poses a potential problem for language acquisition. Studies have found that by the middle of the first year, infants seem to have solved this problem, but it is unknown if segmentation abilities are present from birth, or if they only emerge after sufficient language exposure and/or brain maturation. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy An international team of researchers from the University of Liverpool, SISSA in Italy, the Neurospin Centre in France and The University of Manchester conducted experiments to find the cues crucial for the segmentation of human speech. The researchers played the infants a three-and-a-half minute audio clip in which four meaningless words, were buried in a stream of syllables. Using a painless technique called Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, which shines red light into the brain, they were able to measure how much was absorbed, telling them which parts of the brain were active. 'Key Insight' The researchers discovered two mechanisms in three-day-old infants, which give them the skills to pick out words in a stream of sounds. The first mechanism is known as prosody, the melody of language, allow us to recognise when a word starts and stops. The second is called the statistics of language, which describes how we compute the frequency of when sounds in a word come together. The discovery provides a key insight into a first step to learning language. Important tools Dr Alissa Ferry, University of Manchester, said: "We think this study highlights how sentient newborn babies really are and how much information they are absorbing. That's quite important for new parents and gives them some insight into how their baby is listening to them." Dr Perrine Brusini, University of Liverpool, said: "We then had the infants listen to individual words and found that their brains responded differently to the words that they heard than to slightly different words. "This showed that even from birth infants can pick out individual words from language." Dr Ana Flò, Neurospin, said: "Language in incredibly complicated and this study is about understanding how infants try to make sense of it when they first hear it. We often think of language as being made up of words, but words often blur together when we talk. So one of the first steps to learn language is to pick out the words. "Our study shows that at just three days old, without understanding what it means, they are able pick out individual words from speech. And we have identified two important tools that we are almost certainly born with, that gives them the ability to do this."
Newswise — Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that antibodies that may form the basis of a universal flu vaccine inhibit a second viral protein in addition to the one that they bind. The study, to be published January 25 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reveals that antibodies that recognize the viral surface protein hemagglutinin can also inhibit the viral neuraminidase, and that this enhances antibody neutralization of the virus and the activation of innate immune cells with anti-viral activity. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are yin-yang proteins present on the surface of the influenza virus. The former mediates virion attachment and fusion with host cell membranes, while the latter is an enzyme that releases budding progeny virions from the cell surface that remain attached via the hemagglutinin binding. Hemagglutinin consists of a head domain that contains the receptor binding site that attaches to host cell membranes and a stem domain that connects the head to the virion membrane.  Current flu vaccines induce antibodies that recognize the hemagglutinin head and inhibit its ability to mediate viral entry. But the hemagglutinin head undergoes rapid mutation to escape existing antibodies.  This generates vaccine–resistant strains of the influenza virus each year, necessitating the yearly mad dash to create a matched vaccine. The hemagglutinin stem domain, in contrast, is far more resistant to mutations, providing a target for universal flu vaccines, as has been shown by dozens of studies in animal models. “Hemagglutinin stem-specific antibodies are perhaps the most promising approach for improving the duration and effectiveness of influenza vaccination,” write the authors of the study, which was led by Jonathan W. Yewdell, a senior investigator at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. “It is therefore critical to better understand how anti-stem antibodies provide protection from the virus.” Stem-binding antibodies can block viral entry into host cells by inhibiting hemagglutinin cell fusion activity, but as Yewdell’s lab reports, they also inhibit the release of newly replicated virions by blocking neuraminidase molecules in close proximity to hemagglutinin on the virion.  Experiments in mice confirmed that the ability of anti-stem antibodies to inhibit neuraminidase enabled animals to better survive a severe influenza infection.  Yewdell and colleagues think that this effect may be largely due to the role that neuraminidase normally plays in preventing the activation of innate immune cells with anti-viral activity. In support of this idea, the researchers found that the FDA-approved neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir (Tamiflu) further boosted the ability of anti-stem antibodies to activate immune cells exposed to influenza virus. “The ability of neuraminidase inhibitors to enhance… immune cell activation [by anti-stem antibodies] bound to viruses or infected cells suggests the possible clinical synergy between neuraminidase inhibitors and [anti-stem antibodies] in humans,” the authors write. In addition, this new understanding of how anti-stem antibodies exert their protective effects should aid the design of universal flu vaccines targeting the hemagglutinin stem domain. Kosik et al., 2019. J. Exp. Med. http://jem.rupress.org/cgi/doi/10.1084/jem.20181624?PR
Implants can provide doctors with regular activity updates and are powered by the patient’s movement BINGHAMTON, N.Y. – Smart knee implants may soon be a reality thanks to research conducted by a team including faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York. Knee replacement surgery is the most common joint replacement procedure, with the number of surgeries increasing every year. Many of those surgeries are done to replace an older implant or one that has worn out. Increasingly, this surgery is being performed for younger, more active patients who are faced with a dilemma. When they undergo the surgery, they are expected to remain physically active for their overall health, but that activity can also wear down the new implant. Often, doctors don’t know if patients are overexerting themselves until they begin to develop symptoms. By that point, the damage to the implant has already been done. For a young patient, going through knee replacement surgery every five or 10 years is a daunting task, but finding the perfect balance of activity levels to maintain the integrity of the implant has been equally daunting. Researchers decided it was time to create smarter knee implants that could monitor changes in activity as they happened. Assistant Professor Sherry Towfighian from Binghamton University served as the lead principal investigator on the study, which has been supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). “We are working on a knee implant that has built-in sensors that can monitor how much pressure is being put on the implant so doctors can have a clearer understanding of how much activity is negatively affecting the implant,” said Towfighian. The sensors allow doctors to tell patients when a certain movement has become too much for the implant so patients can quickly adjust and avoid further damage to the implant. It helps them find the sweet spot of activity for each particular patient. While the sensors solved one problem, they brought in another. The researchers did not want to power the sensors with a battery that might need to be replaced periodically and therefore, defeat the purpose of a smart implant. Instead, they worked on an energy harvesting mechanism that can power the knee implant from motion. Wathiq Ibrahim, a postdoc in Towfighian’s group, developed a prototype of the energy harvester and tested that under a mechanical testing machine to examine its output under equivalent body loads. They used triboelectric energy, a type of energy that is collected from friction. Once someone walks, the friction of the micro-surfaces coming into contact with each other can be used to power the load sensors. Associate Professor Emre Salman from Stony Brook University designed the circuit and determined that it would need 4.6 microwatts. The preliminary testing showed the average person’s walk will produce six microwatts of power, more than enough to power the sensors. This part of the research was complemented by Assistant Professor Ryan Willing from the University of Western Ontario, who worked on the implant design and the package of the sensor. These smart implants will not only give feedback to doctors but will help researchers in the development of future implants. “The sensors will tell us more about the demands that are placed on implants, and with that knowledge, researchers can start to improve the implants even more,” said Towfighian. Towfighian is hopeful that the combination of activity sensors and a self-powered system will increase the life span of knee implants and reduce the need for follow-up surgeries. For young patients looking at the possibility of knee replacement surgery, this development has the potential to be life-changing. This research has been supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institute of Health under award number R21AR068572. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The research was published in Smart Materials and Structures.
Newswise — LOS ANGELES (January 21, 2019)—Cedars-Sinai pharmacists are helping make clinical care safer and more effective as more patients with complex medical needs require a variety of increasingly complicated medication therapies.  "Frequent medical breakthroughs mean that more of the patients we see are taking a myriad of medications for a wide range of diseases," said Rita Shane, PharmD, chief pharmacy officer and professor of medicine at Cedars-Sinai. "We ensure that a patient's treatment plan is carried out the way it was intended. It's an expansion of the role of a pharmacist in a community practice that people are familiar with." Cedars-Sinai pharmacists are tasked with ensuring patients receive the medications they need safely and effectively and stick to their regimens once they return home while not taking unnecessary drugs. When patients fail to take prescribed medications—or don't use them the right way—they risk return trips to the hospital and cost the U.S. healthcare system more than $100 billion a year, according to a 2005 study in The New England Journal of Medicine. Older hospital patients are most susceptible to drug-related problems that can lead to readmissions or even death. To help these individuals get the right medications and take them correctly after discharge, Cedars-Sinai has embedded pharmacists in the care teams treating certain high-risk patients. Medication lists are double-checked by a pharmacist for errors prior to discharge, and patients are sent home with their prescription drugs after being counseled on how to take them properly. Early data show that the transitions of care pharmacy program reduced 30-day readmissions for these patients by 14.5% percent while eliminating prescription errors caused by providers. Some of the initiatives in Cedars-Sinai's innovative pharmacy practice include:    Medication Education—Pharmacists teach patients at high-risk of being readmitted to the hospital about their medications and ask patients to explain their drug regimens in their own words. Pharmacists also counsel patients at their hospital bedsides or call them within 72 hours of being discharged to check that patients are taking their medications as prescribed. Reducing Errors—Pharmacists and pharmacist technicians stationed in the medical center's Emergency Department take medication histories for high-risk patients, reducing prescribing errors. Other high-risk hospital patients also have their medication lists evaluated to help avoid unnecessary readmissions. This Cedars-Sinai innovation was tested, and research proved this approach to be effective, which led to a new California law that went into effect this year. Inpatient pharmacists evaluate all orders for medications to avoid drug-to-drug interactions and to ensure that dosages are safe based upon each patient's underlying diseases or conditions. Curbing Unnecessary Antibiotic Use—Pharmacists trained in treating infectious diseases monitor antibiotic use by accompanying physicians on patient rounds. Inpatient pharmacists routinely evaluate and monitor antibiotics to catch early signs of antibiotic resistance. Medication Delivery—Patients can request that their discharge prescription medications be delivered to their room before they leave the hospital. A pharmacist completes a comprehensive review of the patient's medical and medication history and, if needed, offers information about financial assistance. This ensures a smooth transition back home.  High-Cost Drugs—As drug costs skyrocket, Cedars-Sinai's inpatient pharmacy is reducing the amount of money spent on certain high-cost medications. Pharmacists work closely with physicians and the latest medical evidence to determine when a high-cost drug is essential or when a generic drug or an alternative approach would work equally well.
** Newswise — Researchers at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC have identified a cellular response in mice to mild traumatic brain injuries that may lead to seizures. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of epilepsy, which is characterized as the repeated occurrence of seizures. No treatments currently interrupt the process that the brain undergoes after injury that can eventually lead to the chronic condition of epilepsy.  The study, published Monday (Jan. 21) in JNeurosci, suggests that the development of epilepsy triggered by mild traumatic brain injury may be related to an atypical response from brain cells known as astrocytes, which change to form scars after a severe brain injury. This process is important to protect uninjured brain areas but comes at a price, because these scars have been associated with epilepsy. The scientists found that astrocytes do not form scars after mild traumatic brain injury, but some astrocytes are altered in a different way almost immediately by these less severe types of injuries. Then, weeks later, the scientists observed spontaneous, recurrent seizures in some mice. “Our experiments show a strong relationship between changes in astrocytes and the eventual occurrence of a seizure,” said Stefanie Robel, the corresponding author of the study, who is an assistant professor with the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute and at the School of Neuroscience in Virginia Tech’s College of Science. “The findings point to a unique population of astrocytes that respond within 30 minutes of an injury being at the root of the problem where seizures may occur after a latency period of weeks or months, suggesting a therapeutic window to prevent seizure disorders after concussive injuries.” Robel, research associate Oleksii Shandra, and colleagues at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute discovered areas of the brain where astrocytes no longer performed their usual housekeeping work to support normal nerve cell function after mild traumatic brain injury. They first assumed these pockets of nonfunctioning astrocytes were dead, because they no longer made the proteins that normally identify them as astrocytes. Later, Alex Winemiller, a research assistant at the Robel lab and one of the first authors of the study, discovered the cells were alive, but not reacting to injury in their typical manner. Researchers compared data from mice that eventually developed epilepsy with mice that never developed seizures and found a correlation between the loss of function in patches of astrocytes and the development of epilepsy. “Each of these astrocytes is connected to multiple neurons, which make hundreds of thousands of connections, which means the loss of function of even a few astrocytes can be devastating to other cells in the brain,” said Shandra, the first author of the study. “Not only have these astrocytes lost their function, but due to these altered connections, the effects can be widespread to brain cells far away. The degree of this astrocyte dysfunction might be something that defines whether epilepsy develops.” While it has been known that traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired epilepsy, the precise relationship between such injuries and seizures has been elusive. This new study shows that after a latency period, some of the mice developed spontaneous recurrent seizures reminiscent of post-traumatic epilepsy in human patients with traumatic brain injuries, providing a new experimental model that could contribute to understanding of post-traumatic epilepsy. The research was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health, the Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science at Virginia Tech, and the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute. **The cortical grey matter of a mouse is depicted in the 3-D reconstructed confocal image above. Researchers at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC linked a subtype of atypical brain cells called astroscytes with post-traumatic genesis of epilepsy. The reactive astrocytes are characterized by proteins glutamate transporter 1 (blue) and S100 beta (green). Instead of undergoing cell death after mild traumatic brain injury, the atypical astrocytes have an enhanced expression of fluorescent protein tdTomato (red).  
Newswise — A commonly held belief among the general public is orthodontic treatment will prevent future tooth decay. Research undertaken at the University of Adelaide has found that this is not the case. Published in the journal Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology the study, conducted by Dr Esma J Dogramaci and co-author Professor David Brennan from the University’s Adelaide Dental School, assessed the long-term dental health of 448 people from South Australia. “The study found that people who had orthodontic treatment did not have better dental health later in life,” says Dr Dogramaci. “Patients often complain about their crooked teeth and want braces to make their teeth straight so they can avoid problems, like decay, in the future.” The study, which followed people from the age of 13 until they were 30, recorded patients’ dental health behaviours and the number of decayed, missing or filled teeth. “By the age of 30 over a third of participants had received orthodontic treatment,” says Dr Dogramaci. “There is a misconception amongst patients that orthodontic treatment prevents tooth decay, but this is not the case.” The cost of orthodontic treatment, in which crooked teeth are realigned using braces worn over several years, varies from approximately AUS$3000 to $13,000 according to the severity of the problems. Braces are becoming increasingly popular, with one in five patients being adults. The global orthodontics market is predicted to be worth more than US$6 billion by 2023. “Evidence from the research clearly shows that people cannot avoid regularly brushing their teeth, good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to prevent decay in later life,” says Dr Dogramaci. “Having your teeth straightened does not prevent tooth decay in later life.” The research was carried out by the Adelaide Dental School, and the Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health (ARCOPH), the University of Adelaide.